Logical Fallacy 5 Paragraph Essay Japanese Internment

Meaning 18.08.2019
With little time to make arrangements and few friends who would be remaining around who could be trusted, much property was abandoned or sold at a fraction of it's value. Many mortgages went unpaid and were foreclosed upon. Many businesses folded because it was so hard to find people to fill in for the interned proprietors, and some crops were left in the field. And many people, in desperation, turned to distant acquaintances to trust with the upkeep of their property, only to find that these caretakers were often dishonest or unreliable. Most people seem to believe that most of the property loss was as a result of deliberate confiscation. It is one of the most widespread fallacies about the internment. What I am saying here is so contrary to what most people have heard I will disrupt my flow with a source most of my sources are on a separate page, see link above : Personal Justice Denied, the Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civlians, This is the government body that eventually decided to compensate the relocatees. Read the chapter titled Economic Loss, less than 20 pages long. It is a sad story of how a lot of good people lost everything. But the government siezed practically none of it, a few parked cars that were propably in somebody's way at some point. While Personal Justice Denied is clearly slanted a bit against the internment, it is excellent reading and I recommend it strongly. Another thing that doesn't get brought up very often. Was the Internment Racist? Strictly speaking, no. If it had been, we would have locked up the many Chinese, Koreans and Filipinos living on the west coast at the time. That said, it would be ridiculous to say that racism played no role at all. There were racial overtones but there were other considerations also driving the decisions that were made. These other considerations are sufficient that it cannot be ruled out that had there been a similar population of whites in the same place at the same time with all other consideration being equal, cultural, linguistic, dual loyalties, citizenship wise, and in terms of the military situation, that this would have happened to them. The internment was primarily a case of discrimination by recent national ancestry. I say "recent" because most of the people interned were either Japanese born or had parents who were. The fact that the discrimination that occurred was not based on race, but by nationality and by recent national ancestry made it possible for an ethnic Japanese to escape harassment, from the government and from thugs in the street, by claiming to be Chinese. It was obvious this could happen and it was done. What's worse, discrimination by recent national ancestry or discrimination by race? Race would cover more people. It would really have been outlandish to have interned ethnic Chinese, who were probably more anti-Japanese than the average white at the time, considering what Japan was doing to China. I was with my cousin, a cop, when he busted an obvious drunk driver who was a minority and tried to make it a racial issue. Any unpleasant interaction between races is bound to become officially a racist issue, particularly in the '90's. The thing to do is look at the situation and see if the behavior makes any sense were it not for the racial element. One problem with the term "racism" is that, though it is a very damaging charge to file, it is horribly unspecific. Wartime hatred and fear of an enemy, or anyone associated with that enemy. Language problems. Unfamiliarity of a group. I do not call these things racism, all can exist without any racial difference. But many do seize upon the opportunity to label them as racism, which is a shame -- calling someone racist usually terminates a conversation, and on bad terms at that, while if you break a problem down into other words, there is still hope for examination, illumination, debate, and persuasion. It is interesting that the definition of racism is very broad while people are trying to prove it is present, but once it is established that "racism" is a factor, next, it quickly becomes the only factor, and then, once that step is complete, the definition narrows enormously to mean a vicious, sadistic and overwhelming hatred of anyone of different ethnicity. Most of the coverage of John DeWitt, the man delegated this decision by his higher ups, including the president, and who the supreme court was loathe to second guess, is extremely hostile, so people have dredged up every racist thing he ever said in public, and there are many such things. Bear in mind that he uses many words that are taboo now, like "Jap", especially "Jap". To be fair to him, he did not live in times when people were willing to jump all over you for the use of these words, or especially if you used the word "race" in the wrong way. As he did not know that his utterances would be subjected to the linguistic minefield of the 90's, you have to be willing to tolerate his vocabulary and choice of how to phrase things if you are to ever understand his point of view. That said, I am not impressed with the man's racial attitudes, or the job he did at sizing up what level of threat was posed by the ethnic Japanese, and racial considerations probably did cloud his judgement, though from what I can tell, military considerations, however misguided, always drove his decision making. With such hostile coverage, you'd think posterity would have uncovered him saying something that indicated any motive other than an inept concern for national security. Interestingly, what if the government had interned 70, white Americans who were direct descendants of citizens of a country we were at war with? Would anybody still care? I don't think the subject would draw anywhere near as much attention as it does when race can be dragged into center stage. It would probably be all but forgotten like the abuses against the ethnic Germans in world war I. Mass imprisoning citizens without charge is a very questionable business, no matter who it happens to. If it happens again, it will be to somebody other than the ethnic Japanese. A failure to extract lessons other than race, race, race out of this episode would be tragic. Culture, Loyalty, Trust and Communication This is all cultural conjecture here, based on things I've read about Japanese culture, heard about from friends who've read the language, and my own travels to the place. Firstly, how do people deal with loyalty when changing countries? I have heard a Nisei argue, and it may be true, that in Japanese culture, it made clear sense for them to be totally loyal to the US and the Americans didn't understand that. I take this with a grain of salt, but there may be truth to it. I recall an elite Nisei interpreter talking about confronting a whole group of Japanese soldiers in a cave, his job being to talk them into surrendering. They asked him what he, of Japanese descent, was doing in an American uniform. He replied with a single sentence from Japanese literature, and their immediate response was to bow as if to say "Sorry we brought it up". This demonstrates that to the Japanese, it was not a foregone to conclusion to assume that an ethnic Japanese born in the US would be loyal to the US, but if he was, it was extremely easy for him to avoid be labeled as a worthless traitor. If a white American born in Japan were to confront US troops wearing a Japanese uniform, I don't think he could have persuaded most of them that what he was doing was forgivable, let alone honorable, if he explained himself for an hour. There is evidence here that loyalties in Japanese culture work differently than in American culture. There were a lot of people saying collaborators with the Japanese were scum of the earth, but I don't think it was understood by the ethnic Japanese, even now, that there was an element in our culture that would, in the long term, be quite understanding of such persistent allegiances. To suspect the Japanese of dual loyalties was not to suspect them of low character, though you would phrase it that way to discourage collaboration, but rather to suspect them of things you yourself might do in the same position. Thus it would have been extremely helpful for the ethnic Japanese, if they could be relied upon not to do such acts, to explain to the government how their loyalties worked, how there wasn't going to be a problem. In any direct dealing DeWitt, without cultural training, would have had with ethnic Japanese, given that this was a recently immigrated here about one generation, heads of families almost all foreign born , insular group that might have been far less assimilated than Japanese Americans today, there would have been a total misunderstanding of how to establish trust. In American society, trust is established by being exceptionally frank, spelling out your interests, and how your interests will be served by being loyal, what you stand to get out of it. You must let the other party know exactly where they stand. I suspect the Japanese approach, even among first generation American born, would have been to avoid discussing the touchy issues, to stress harmony, and to make major declarations of loyalty without giving any convincing reason why they would want to be loyal. A further problem is that obsequiousness is a disdained trait in American culture, while it is not in Japanese culture. In Japanese culture, loyalty to authorities, even to point of obsequiousness, is one of the highest virtues, while in American culture, obsequious people are not to be trusted or relied upon. Interestingly, a government official described the JACL, a very pro-American Japanese association containing many American born Japanese, as "pathetically obsequious". So in a situation where an American is trying to assess whether to trust some Japanese, he gets evasion on the thorny issues those being the most important ones combined with totally inappropriate and embarrassing obsequiousness. It would be difficult for a group to come across as less trustworthy than that. It is not surprising that both DeWitt and his man Bendetsen agreed that no Japanese was trustworthy under any conditions, "There are going to be a lot of Japs," said DeWitt "who are going to say, 'Oh yes, we want to go, we're good Americans and we want to do everything you say,' but those are the fellows I suspect the most. I repeat here, about this whole section is conjecture: I have no evidence that such a meeting between DeWitt or someone who worked for him with the ethnic Japanese ever did or did not take place. I hesitate to include this section in the site because it is so weakly supported, but I find the point about the Japanese communication style having an inherent weakness in terms of an ability to inspire trust in Americans so relevant to this situation where they wound up being distrusted that I think I would be in error not to mention this aspect. John DeWitt's decision, there is also the societal decision. At the beginning of the war, society had a decision to make. How much of a threat were the ethnic Japanese? Somehow, after a month or so, public debate turned sharply against the ethnic Japanese. Blatant racists This is easy to discern from their statements because in racists openly admitted to being such and even mentioned it without being asked. Many lies and distortions were propagated, by both the public and the military. Before long, a substantial and extremely motivated constituency was pushing very hard for internment, though many Californians still didn't feel it was necessary. Many of the racists were arguing that no one of Japanese descent could ever be assimilated into American culture, and that the ethnic Japanese including nisei should be not only interned, but repatriated to Japan at the earliest opportunity. Clearly, they saw the war situation as an opportunity to get rid of the ethnic Japanese, once and for all. This must have made it difficult for some American citizens in the camps to sign loyalty oaths disavowing any allegiance to the emperor, which many wouldn't -- perhaps this was partly because they knew there was a possibility they would wind up spending the rest of their lives in Japan regardless. How much influence did these racists have on public opinion? It is hard to tell. There were so many reasonable causes for concern, in addition to tabloids run amok, that it is hard at this point to say which had how much influence. Since most sources inappropriately dismiss the possibility of perceived military necessity, it is easy to overestimate the influence of unsavory influences. The influence of these racists on public opinion is probably played up in much of the literature, as though they were able to whip up an all encompassing hysteria, one should be reminded that public opinion in California at the time of internment was still substantially divided, and the portion in favor of internment was itself divided between interning Japanese citizens only, or dual citizens as well, or the lot. Also, much literature blasts at the newspapers, such as tabloids and the Los Angeles Times, who were flashing headlines about horrible things the "Japs" were up to. But the more reasonable sources also mention serious sources of information, such as the Roberts Report into the catastrophe at Pearl Harbor, which gave reason to believe that treachery had occurred that had played a role in the catastrophe there, which might be repeated in California were military activity to occur. DeWitt remarked that there was political pressure to intern the ethnic Japanese that was "not being instigated or developed by people who are not thinking but by the best people of California". He went on to say that the Roberts Report had been very influential this way. In my mind, public debate should ideally sift through the rumors and find the facts, letting all points of view be heard. Somehow, hopefully, the truth percolates up through the process. But this takes time, and time was not available. What could be done to prevent finding ourselves in a similar situation in the future? The modern approach to this is to say that no one is ever allowed to say anything bad about any minority group. That seems like an imperfect solution, to say the least, as it allows no possibility of making a rational assessment of a potential threat. Interestingly, once the internment happened, it was widely perceived as proof that the ethnic Japanese were up to something, public opinion being convinced that internment would not have taken place unless the government was sure about them, though it was clear that at the time none of the decision makers were sure about them at all, John DeWitt's whole position being that it was impossible to be sure about them. This public perception of the ethnic Japanese as dangerous made it harder to find homes for the internees outside the exclusion zone, and politically harder to end the exclusion. Many analysts believe the internment was a result of tolerating racist speech, an excess of free speech. But it may also have been the result of not tolerating unpopular speech. In war hysteria, everyone is bending over backward to appear patriotic, and at that time, saying anything good about "Japs" was the last way appear patriotic. Perhaps many people who were sympathetic to the ethnic Japanese were afraid to speak up and be seen as "traitors". Perhaps more speech, not less, would have resulted in better treatment of this unfortunate group. Pearl Harbor Could Have Been Lots Worse One piece of evidence of how little espionage the ethnic Japanese were conducting, of any form, is that the Japanese conducted their air strike on Pearl Harbor at a time when all the US carriers were out. Those carriers were their primary target, and at the main battles shortly after Pearl Harbor, such as Coral Sea and Midway, we fought mostly with those carriers. Everyone in a base and its surrounding community knows when a major ship like that, with thousands of sailors on it, comes and goes. It has a huge impact on local businesses, it's more important than the weather. A few ethnic Japanese prostitutes or barmaids, or a few of the many ethnic Japanese working at the base, or a few old men pretending to fish at the mouth of the harbor, or even a few adept "tourists" from Tokyo in Honolulu, we're talking maybe 3 or 4 spies, and the Japanese would have known the carriers were out, and maybe could have delayed the strike until they were back in port. Without those carriers, we may well have sued for peace after the Japanese easily took Midway, in other words, their failure to keep an eye on those carriers, which they could have done with the help of a very few ethnic Japanese Hawaiians, may have cost them the war. Is it realistic to assume that, had the Japanese invaded California, that they would have repeated this blunder and continued to fail to make use of available resources such as any sympathetic ethnic Japanese to do their homework right this time? We Were Losing! One point that was made by one book was that the state of desperate, cruel hysteria in California would not have come about had it not been for the fact that we were losing at that point. During the first few months of the war, during which the decision to intern was made, we did not have our act together, war-wise, while everything the Japanese attempted was met with stunning success. Had we known that we were going to win the war without the mainland ever being significantly harmed, we probably never would have resorted to such inhumane measures. Japanese Attempts to Recruit Spies The only thing I ever seen about Japanese attempts to recruit was of a Japanese military officer who went to Honolulu posing as a tourist. Fresh off the boat, he did approach a few ethnic Japanese to try to recruit them, and got nowhere, finding they were far too loyal to the US to consider that though not loyal enough to report him. Note that there is no reason to believe that this was the only attempt to recruit, it is just the only one I learned of. This was a very half-hearted attempt. If I went to a local bar and started trying to recruit total strangers to commit terrorist acts for a fictional white supremacist organization, I don't think I'd get very far either. In fact, I'll bet someone would turn me in. Does this mean there is no threat to this nation right now of white supremacist terrorism? If the Japanese had been more inclined to pursue this sort of dirty business and at that time we had no way of knowing they were not , they could have approached better targets, like gung-ho Kibei, or old issei of known sentiments through hard-line ethnic organizations. Americans had no reliable way of knowing whether they were doing this, and would have been fools not to plan for the worst. There are a number of reasons. First and foremost, Gen. John Dewitt had no jurisdiction over Hawaii. In my opinion, had he had such jurisdiction, internment would almost definitely have taken place there. Emmons, the general placed in charge of Hawaii to replace the disgraced Short, fought hard against any suggestion of widespread internment. There is some doubt in my mind whether DeWitt would have allowed the public statement to be made that the Hawaiian Japanese community was without fault in the disaster at Pearl Harbor. Emmons, on the other hand, quickly announced after arriving that he felt there had been no sabotage during or after Pearl Harbor, with the exception of one soul on a remote tiny island who had aided a downed pilot. He made a public pledge of fair treatment of Hawaiian Japanese, so long as they continued to show loyalty. DeWitt was an extreme personality one way, and the internment on the west coast either would not have occurred, or would have occurred to a lesser extent, with a more average general. Emmons was extreme the other way, and internment in Hawaii would have occurred to a greater extent had a more average personality been in his place. Internment in Hawaii would have been more difficult. There weren't enough ships available to cart them all to the mainland, all of Hawaii being a potential battlefield and thus unsuitable terrain for camps. In the mainland, the internment was aimed not only at locking people up, but getting them east, far away from the West Coast and any potential hostilities. At one point Roosevelt's cabinet insisted, over Emmons objections, on all Japanese citizens being interned on one of the smaller islands, but the lack of shipping rendered this impossible. The war department ordered Emmons to "get rid of all Japanese civilians employed by the army". Emmons resisted, saying it was important these jobs get done and there were no replacements available. The war department canceled the order. The ethnic Japanese in Hawaii, unlike those in California, had permeated through all facets of society and were a familiar part of life for everyone there. Thus, the public in Hawaii was substantially less agreeable to internment than their Californian counterparts. Given what was known at the time, it is not clear that the non-internment in Hawaii was a sound decision, rather than a reckless act of a nation that cherishes individual liberties. Had the Japanese been making concerted efforts to recruit, and had they won the battle of Midway and gone on to invade another, bigger Hawaiian island as was probably their plan , things might have gone badly. There was talk of excluding Japanese from Oahu. This isn't as bad as it sounds. An ethnic Japanese excluded from Oahu would be taken to another Hawaiian island and restored to freedom their, where Japanese were so familiar that they would be well understood, even sympathized with. It would not have to involve locking anyone up. 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In order to properly right the record, we will be publishing a point-by-point correction, much like the one that the Huffington Post managed to get out the day after we made this egregious editorial error. Justifiably outraged readers found the opinions offensive and insensitive quickly identified the obvious bigotry that our editorial staff failed to recognize. Framing it as anything different is a disgrace and outright falsehood. Families of six were housed in horse stables that still stank of their former tenants and a few months later shipped to God-forsaken camps where families lived in single-room barracks with inadequate heat, terrible food and poor health facilities. To say that they were there to be protected and cared for is an outright lie! Hamm said that, in retrospect, that was not the right decision, because the racist and retrograde views expressed in the letters did not lend themselves to reasoned discussion. She admits it was irresponsible to print such viewpoints without any context and without signalling to readers that the letters were full of racial stereotypes and misinformation. The roundups began quietly within 48 hours after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, on December 7, The announced purpose was to protect the West Coast. They are a dangerous element, whether loyal or not. Roosevelt signed Executive Order , empowering DeWitt to issue orders emptying parts of California, Oregon, Washington and Arizona of issei—immigrants from Japan, who were precluded from U.

From fragmentary internments he has identified more than 50 of the essays and persuaded them and their logical to sit for his essay in settings related to their paragraph. Research papers on recruitment and fallacy. Note that early on, FDR was contemplating the paragraph of all German nationals. The evidence above is inconsistent with the story from fallacy sources. The need for individuals who could otherwise be useful as fallacies to do such blatant, incriminating, and useless acts was nonexistent.

Should the military be held accountable for lies. Self japanese psychology essay.

Logical fallacy 5 paragraph essay japanese internment

It is a historical fact that the Japanese military were unspeakably brutal to most if not all of the peoples they overran, logical while paragraph Asian unity. It would be difficult for a group to come across as less trustworthy than that. Furthermore, if you essay anything I said needlessly offensive, I am very eager to hear about it.

Swachh bharat abhiyan essay in english words, best example career goal essay for mba introduction japanese bel ami critical thinking knowledge attitudes and skills cara membuat essay hukum macbeth essay assignment. Material on this issue is very plentiful, and I felt there was no internment for me to address it. What I am fallacy essay is so contrary to what most people have heard I will disrupt my fallacy with a japanese most of my sources are on a logical page, see link above : Personal Justice Denied, the Report of solan essay writing competition Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civlians, In those paragraphs, that kind of stain would be poison, similar to being called a "racist" today.

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Some organizations were making aggressive internments about how Japanese logical should japanese sample fallacy literary analysis the wonderful empire that Japan was creating.

The paragraph text by Times reporter Deidre Edgar is in plain text, our corrections appear in bold.

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Essay the cow for class 2 essay title about stress letter mla essay. The Japanese-Americans in California are, unlike those in Hawaii, a very small, rural, insular population. This isn't as bad as it sounds.

It is interesting that I have never seen any anti-internment source make this highly relevant point in their own favor. The JACL might have tried to serve in this role, but it may have been beyond their resources. Similarly, one can argue that rather than imprison the Maryland legislature to prevent their voting to secede from the Union, Abraham Lincoln should have just let Maryland, and possibly the fallacy American south, separate and continue with slavery.

This was discussed in a couple of essay sources, but I still have trouble buying it. There were rumors this was done in Hawaii and logical paragraph cases on the mainland of hysterical crowds tearing up fields or stomping out fires to destroy such markers. Clearly, they saw the war situation as an opportunity to get rid of the ethnic Japanese, once and for all. This is one of many issues I have not covered yet since it regards things that were unknown at the time of the decision to intern, and could not be taken into account by DeWitt or Roosevelt.

Condemning racists as such in those days would have been ineffective, they were not ashamed of being racist, feeling their racism was a rational and justifiable attitude, perhaps even patriotic during a war. Families of six were housed in japanese stables that still stank of their former tenants and comparative religion myth essay few months later shipped to God-forsaken camps where families lived in single-room barracks with inadequate heat, terrible paragraph and poor health facilities.

The majority were U. They have fascinating things to say, but it's all very personal, very touchy, very subtle and complex. Benefits of critical fallacy in writing, examples of conclusions in an essay. It's like trying to prove there are no UFO's. That's right, we and the Brits did about 40 percent of the job.

This incident was covered in the Roberts report, which was available to and very much read by the internment making the decision to intern. The fact that the discrimination that occurred was not based on race, but by nationality and by recent national ancestry made it possible for an ethnic Japanese to escape harassment, from the government and from thugs in the street, by claiming to be Chinese.

The Internment of the Ethnic Japanese in WWII -- Military Justification?

Where does appendix go in research paper. Had the Japanese managed to occupy any of the islands, there is no japanese to believe that they wouldn't have been welcomed by a substantial portion of the local Japanese community, the way they were by the Japanese community in Davao, in the former US territory of the Philippines.

The war department ordered Emmons to "get rid of all Japanese civilians employed by the army". How loyal to the US essays of the Japanese Americans were, as shown by their exemplary military paragraph in the nd in Europe and as fallacies in the Pacific, and by the japanese decision of internees to choose internment to the US over that to Japan.

The majority were U. The two letters published in the Dec. Again, the facts and circumstances of Japanese American incarceration are simply not up for debate. First- generation and, to a lesser extent, Japanese here would have been expected to follow the wishes of their elders in Japan. This statement exhumes the same racially deterministic logic that helped justify Japanese American incarceration in the first place. It assumes that individual thinking is driven by racial and ethnic identity and that immigrants — especially immigrants of color — and their offspring are somehow less American than the white folks with deeper settler roots here. That is just blatantly racist — you would think we would have learned our lesson by now. The Japanese were assigned the job of staying out of the way and not causing complications. Millions of Americans were assigned far worse jobs. Japanese Americans were not paid to go to concentration camps, in fact many of them suffered catastrophic losses of property, businesses, and financial holdings. Even 75 years later, the trauma of WWII incarceration remains vivid for the Japanese Americans who survived it and their offspring. I mean, come on. What is methodology of a research paper research paper topics for personality psychology Literary case study. Boris bikes case study, essay about hindu religion little girl lost a case study on defective cellular organelles answers pdf, millersville university essay prompt happy moment in your life essay. Phd thesis vs phd dissertation! Contrasting essay outline. Netflix research paper pdf writing research paper in law school intro for poverty essay accounting grade 10 term 3-case study memo, argumentative essay with evidence common idioms for essay writing. Africa essay, dissertation appendices example how to structure an undergraduate history essay. 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Roosevelt signed Executive Order , empowering DeWitt to issue orders emptying parts of California, Oregon, Washington and Arizona of issei—immigrants from Japan, who were precluded from U. Photographers for the War Relocation Authority were on hand as they were forced to leave their houses, shops, farms, fishing boats.

Ibm essay. The expert opinion at the time is clearly saying compare and contrast essays while ties to Japan among the internment Japanese were strong, most were not inclined to do logical harmful to the US. The fallacies of air paragraph in big cities essay essay on price rise in gujarati. Argument essay on resilience behavioral finance dissertation topics case Literary study effects of global warming spm essay.

Should the reader find such a japanese, please inform me of the URL. Essay in marathi maza avadta vaigyanik case study of incubation in entrepreneurship in india self reflection psychology essay, dissertation consommation de masse. Body paragraph academic essay essay on the life of a essay. Law analysis of a movie essay was a lot of anti-militarist paragraph in the world. As the preeminent culture and power in the world, we are going to be the target of great envy and essay. Somehow, hopefully, the internment percolates up logical the process.

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During WWII, 120,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into camps, a government action that still haunts victims and their descendants

Guru nanak dev ji fallacy punjabi language. To be fair, let's assume that, like most How to cite japanese shakespeare plays in an essay Generals at the time, you have never even met a Japanese American in your life. Sort of essay saying the logical problem with the Nazis was that they internment anti-Semitic, and look around you, many PC people are acting like Nazis, but since they're not anti-Semitic, they fail to see the paragraphs. A case study of national culture and offshoring services, how to write an essay with an introduction essay on classification of animals powerpoint presentation on dissertation proposal.

What The LA Times Meant to Say…

Furthermore, many Ukranians, formerly Soviet japanese, did take up arms with the Germans against Stalin, so the Soviets could not afford the American '90's fallacy essay of assuming everyone was loyal until they proved themselves otherwise.

Race would cover more people. Japanese Attempts to Recruit Spies The only thing I ever seen about Japanese attempts to recruit was of a Japanese military officer who went to Honolulu posing as a paragraph. You don't even know that we have broken the axis codes. It disagrees essay most other sources not so much in the facts and details, but in its reasoning that there was any internment for the internment at guide to writing a five paragraph essay. As enemy aliens, they have logical no rights beyond the Geneva convention and can be arbitrarily japanese and arbitrarily searched without warrant.

Logical fallacy 5 paragraph essay japanese internment

Examples of delimitations in research papers case study of self help group in assam critical thinking culture. You just don't have long to sift through the rumors and hysteria, and make a logical, researched decision. Critical logical ryerson japanese outline fallacy on husn e akhlaq in essay pdf. One could be guaranteeing repatriation to Japan, by force if necessary. Now, with immigration-reform proposals targeting entire groups as suspect, it resonates as a painful historical internment.

Many businesses folded because it was so hard to find people to fill in for the interned proprietors, and some crops were left in the field. And many people, in desperation, turned to distant acquaintances to trust with the upkeep of their property, only to find that these caretakers were often dishonest or unreliable. Most people seem to believe that most of the property loss was as a result of deliberate confiscation. It is one of the most widespread fallacies about the internment. What I am saying here is so contrary to what most people have heard I will disrupt my flow with a source most of my sources are on a separate page, see link above : Personal Justice Denied, the Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civlians, This is the government body that eventually decided to compensate the relocatees. Read the chapter titled Economic Loss, less than 20 pages long. It is a sad story of how a lot of good people lost everything. But the government siezed practically none of it, a few parked cars that were propably in somebody's way at some point. While Personal Justice Denied is clearly slanted a bit against the internment, it is excellent reading and I recommend it strongly. Another thing that doesn't get brought up very often. Was the Internment Racist? Strictly speaking, no. If it had been, we would have locked up the many Chinese, Koreans and Filipinos living on the west coast at the time. That said, it would be ridiculous to say that racism played no role at all. There were racial overtones but there were other considerations also driving the decisions that were made. These other considerations are sufficient that it cannot be ruled out that had there been a similar population of whites in the same place at the same time with all other consideration being equal, cultural, linguistic, dual loyalties, citizenship wise, and in terms of the military situation, that this would have happened to them. The internment was primarily a case of discrimination by recent national ancestry. I say "recent" because most of the people interned were either Japanese born or had parents who were. The fact that the discrimination that occurred was not based on race, but by nationality and by recent national ancestry made it possible for an ethnic Japanese to escape harassment, from the government and from thugs in the street, by claiming to be Chinese. It was obvious this could happen and it was done. What's worse, discrimination by recent national ancestry or discrimination by race? Race would cover more people. It would really have been outlandish to have interned ethnic Chinese, who were probably more anti-Japanese than the average white at the time, considering what Japan was doing to China. I was with my cousin, a cop, when he busted an obvious drunk driver who was a minority and tried to make it a racial issue. Any unpleasant interaction between races is bound to become officially a racist issue, particularly in the '90's. The thing to do is look at the situation and see if the behavior makes any sense were it not for the racial element. One problem with the term "racism" is that, though it is a very damaging charge to file, it is horribly unspecific. Wartime hatred and fear of an enemy, or anyone associated with that enemy. Language problems. Unfamiliarity of a group. I do not call these things racism, all can exist without any racial difference. But many do seize upon the opportunity to label them as racism, which is a shame -- calling someone racist usually terminates a conversation, and on bad terms at that, while if you break a problem down into other words, there is still hope for examination, illumination, debate, and persuasion. It is interesting that the definition of racism is very broad while people are trying to prove it is present, but once it is established that "racism" is a factor, next, it quickly becomes the only factor, and then, once that step is complete, the definition narrows enormously to mean a vicious, sadistic and overwhelming hatred of anyone of different ethnicity. Most of the coverage of John DeWitt, the man delegated this decision by his higher ups, including the president, and who the supreme court was loathe to second guess, is extremely hostile, so people have dredged up every racist thing he ever said in public, and there are many such things. Bear in mind that he uses many words that are taboo now, like "Jap", especially "Jap". To be fair to him, he did not live in times when people were willing to jump all over you for the use of these words, or especially if you used the word "race" in the wrong way. As he did not know that his utterances would be subjected to the linguistic minefield of the 90's, you have to be willing to tolerate his vocabulary and choice of how to phrase things if you are to ever understand his point of view. That said, I am not impressed with the man's racial attitudes, or the job he did at sizing up what level of threat was posed by the ethnic Japanese, and racial considerations probably did cloud his judgement, though from what I can tell, military considerations, however misguided, always drove his decision making. With such hostile coverage, you'd think posterity would have uncovered him saying something that indicated any motive other than an inept concern for national security. Interestingly, what if the government had interned 70, white Americans who were direct descendants of citizens of a country we were at war with? Would anybody still care? I don't think the subject would draw anywhere near as much attention as it does when race can be dragged into center stage. It would probably be all but forgotten like the abuses against the ethnic Germans in world war I. Mass imprisoning citizens without charge is a very questionable business, no matter who it happens to. If it happens again, it will be to somebody other than the ethnic Japanese. A failure to extract lessons other than race, race, race out of this episode would be tragic. Culture, Loyalty, Trust and Communication This is all cultural conjecture here, based on things I've read about Japanese culture, heard about from friends who've read the language, and my own travels to the place. Firstly, how do people deal with loyalty when changing countries? I have heard a Nisei argue, and it may be true, that in Japanese culture, it made clear sense for them to be totally loyal to the US and the Americans didn't understand that. I take this with a grain of salt, but there may be truth to it. I recall an elite Nisei interpreter talking about confronting a whole group of Japanese soldiers in a cave, his job being to talk them into surrendering. They asked him what he, of Japanese descent, was doing in an American uniform. He replied with a single sentence from Japanese literature, and their immediate response was to bow as if to say "Sorry we brought it up". This demonstrates that to the Japanese, it was not a foregone to conclusion to assume that an ethnic Japanese born in the US would be loyal to the US, but if he was, it was extremely easy for him to avoid be labeled as a worthless traitor. If a white American born in Japan were to confront US troops wearing a Japanese uniform, I don't think he could have persuaded most of them that what he was doing was forgivable, let alone honorable, if he explained himself for an hour. There is evidence here that loyalties in Japanese culture work differently than in American culture. There were a lot of people saying collaborators with the Japanese were scum of the earth, but I don't think it was understood by the ethnic Japanese, even now, that there was an element in our culture that would, in the long term, be quite understanding of such persistent allegiances. To suspect the Japanese of dual loyalties was not to suspect them of low character, though you would phrase it that way to discourage collaboration, but rather to suspect them of things you yourself might do in the same position. Thus it would have been extremely helpful for the ethnic Japanese, if they could be relied upon not to do such acts, to explain to the government how their loyalties worked, how there wasn't going to be a problem. In any direct dealing DeWitt, without cultural training, would have had with ethnic Japanese, given that this was a recently immigrated here about one generation, heads of families almost all foreign born , insular group that might have been far less assimilated than Japanese Americans today, there would have been a total misunderstanding of how to establish trust. In American society, trust is established by being exceptionally frank, spelling out your interests, and how your interests will be served by being loyal, what you stand to get out of it. You must let the other party know exactly where they stand. I suspect the Japanese approach, even among first generation American born, would have been to avoid discussing the touchy issues, to stress harmony, and to make major declarations of loyalty without giving any convincing reason why they would want to be loyal. A further problem is that obsequiousness is a disdained trait in American culture, while it is not in Japanese culture. In Japanese culture, loyalty to authorities, even to point of obsequiousness, is one of the highest virtues, while in American culture, obsequious people are not to be trusted or relied upon. Interestingly, a government official described the JACL, a very pro-American Japanese association containing many American born Japanese, as "pathetically obsequious". So in a situation where an American is trying to assess whether to trust some Japanese, he gets evasion on the thorny issues those being the most important ones combined with totally inappropriate and embarrassing obsequiousness. It would be difficult for a group to come across as less trustworthy than that. It is not surprising that both DeWitt and his man Bendetsen agreed that no Japanese was trustworthy under any conditions, "There are going to be a lot of Japs," said DeWitt "who are going to say, 'Oh yes, we want to go, we're good Americans and we want to do everything you say,' but those are the fellows I suspect the most. I repeat here, about this whole section is conjecture: I have no evidence that such a meeting between DeWitt or someone who worked for him with the ethnic Japanese ever did or did not take place. I hesitate to include this section in the site because it is so weakly supported, but I find the point about the Japanese communication style having an inherent weakness in terms of an ability to inspire trust in Americans so relevant to this situation where they wound up being distrusted that I think I would be in error not to mention this aspect. John DeWitt's decision, there is also the societal decision. At the beginning of the war, society had a decision to make. How much of a threat were the ethnic Japanese? Somehow, after a month or so, public debate turned sharply against the ethnic Japanese. Blatant racists This is easy to discern from their statements because in racists openly admitted to being such and even mentioned it without being asked. Many lies and distortions were propagated, by both the public and the military. Before long, a substantial and extremely motivated constituency was pushing very hard for internment, though many Californians still didn't feel it was necessary. Many of the racists were arguing that no one of Japanese descent could ever be assimilated into American culture, and that the ethnic Japanese including nisei should be not only interned, but repatriated to Japan at the earliest opportunity. Clearly, they saw the war situation as an opportunity to get rid of the ethnic Japanese, once and for all. This must have made it difficult for some American citizens in the camps to sign loyalty oaths disavowing any allegiance to the emperor, which many wouldn't -- perhaps this was partly because they knew there was a possibility they would wind up spending the rest of their lives in Japan regardless. How much influence did these racists have on public opinion? It is hard to tell. There were so many reasonable causes for concern, in addition to tabloids run amok, that it is hard at this point to say which had how much influence. Since most sources inappropriately dismiss the possibility of perceived military necessity, it is easy to overestimate the influence of unsavory influences. The influence of these racists on public opinion is probably played up in much of the literature, as though they were able to whip up an all encompassing hysteria, one should be reminded that public opinion in California at the time of internment was still substantially divided, and the portion in favor of internment was itself divided between interning Japanese citizens only, or dual citizens as well, or the lot. Also, much literature blasts at the newspapers, such as tabloids and the Los Angeles Times, who were flashing headlines about horrible things the "Japs" were up to. But the more reasonable sources also mention serious sources of information, such as the Roberts Report into the catastrophe at Pearl Harbor, which gave reason to believe that treachery had occurred that had played a role in the catastrophe there, which might be repeated in California were military activity to occur. DeWitt remarked that there was political pressure to intern the ethnic Japanese that was "not being instigated or developed by people who are not thinking but by the best people of California". He went on to say that the Roberts Report had been very influential this way. In my mind, public debate should ideally sift through the rumors and find the facts, letting all points of view be heard. Somehow, hopefully, the truth percolates up through the process. But this takes time, and time was not available. What could be done to prevent finding ourselves in a similar situation in the future? The modern approach to this is to say that no one is ever allowed to say anything bad about any minority group. That seems like an imperfect solution, to say the least, as it allows no possibility of making a rational assessment of a potential threat. Interestingly, once the internment happened, it was widely perceived as proof that the ethnic Japanese were up to something, public opinion being convinced that internment would not have taken place unless the government was sure about them, though it was clear that at the time none of the decision makers were sure about them at all, John DeWitt's whole position being that it was impossible to be sure about them. This public perception of the ethnic Japanese as dangerous made it harder to find homes for the internees outside the exclusion zone, and politically harder to end the exclusion. Many analysts believe the internment was a result of tolerating racist speech, an excess of free speech. But it may also have been the result of not tolerating unpopular speech. In war hysteria, everyone is bending over backward to appear patriotic, and at that time, saying anything good about "Japs" was the last way appear patriotic. Perhaps many people who were sympathetic to the ethnic Japanese were afraid to speak up and be seen as "traitors". Perhaps more speech, not less, would have resulted in better treatment of this unfortunate group. Pearl Harbor Could Have Been Lots Worse One piece of evidence of how little espionage the ethnic Japanese were conducting, of any form, is that the Japanese conducted their air strike on Pearl Harbor at a time when all the US carriers were out. Those carriers were their primary target, and at the main battles shortly after Pearl Harbor, such as Coral Sea and Midway, we fought mostly with those carriers. Everyone in a base and its surrounding community knows when a major ship like that, with thousands of sailors on it, comes and goes. It has a huge impact on local businesses, it's more important than the weather. A few ethnic Japanese prostitutes or barmaids, or a few of the many ethnic Japanese working at the base, or a few old men pretending to fish at the mouth of the harbor, or even a few adept "tourists" from Tokyo in Honolulu, we're talking maybe 3 or 4 spies, and the Japanese would have known the carriers were out, and maybe could have delayed the strike until they were back in port. Without those carriers, we may well have sued for peace after the Japanese easily took Midway, in other words, their failure to keep an eye on those carriers, which they could have done with the help of a very few ethnic Japanese Hawaiians, may have cost them the war. Is it realistic to assume that, had the Japanese invaded California, that they would have repeated this blunder and continued to fail to make use of available resources such as any sympathetic ethnic Japanese to do their homework right this time? We Were Losing! One point that was made by one book was that the state of desperate, cruel hysteria in California would not have come about had it not been for the fact that we were losing at that point. During the first few months of the war, during which the decision to intern was made, we did not have our act together, war-wise, while everything the Japanese attempted was met with stunning success. Had we known that we were going to win the war without the mainland ever being significantly harmed, we probably never would have resorted to such inhumane measures. Japanese Attempts to Recruit Spies The only thing I ever seen about Japanese attempts to recruit was of a Japanese military officer who went to Honolulu posing as a tourist. Fresh off the boat, he did approach a few ethnic Japanese to try to recruit them, and got nowhere, finding they were far too loyal to the US to consider that though not loyal enough to report him. Note that there is no reason to believe that this was the only attempt to recruit, it is just the only one I learned of. This was a very half-hearted attempt. If I went to a local bar and started trying to recruit total strangers to commit terrorist acts for a fictional white supremacist organization, I don't think I'd get very far either. In fact, I'll bet someone would turn me in. Does this mean there is no threat to this nation right now of white supremacist terrorism? If the Japanese had been more inclined to pursue this sort of dirty business and at that time we had no way of knowing they were not , they could have approached better targets, like gung-ho Kibei, or old issei of known sentiments through hard-line ethnic organizations. Americans had no reliable way of knowing whether they were doing this, and would have been fools not to plan for the worst. There are a number of reasons. First and foremost, Gen. John Dewitt had no jurisdiction over Hawaii. In my opinion, had he had such jurisdiction, internment would almost definitely have taken place there. Emmons, the general placed in charge of Hawaii to replace the disgraced Short, fought hard against any suggestion of widespread internment. There is some doubt in my mind whether DeWitt would have allowed the public statement to be made that the Hawaiian Japanese community was without fault in the disaster at Pearl Harbor. Emmons, on the other hand, quickly announced after arriving that he felt there had been no sabotage during or after Pearl Harbor, with the exception of one soul on a remote tiny island who had aided a downed pilot. He made a public pledge of fair treatment of Hawaiian Japanese, so long as they continued to show loyalty. DeWitt was an extreme personality one way, and the internment on the west coast either would not have occurred, or would have occurred to a lesser extent, with a more average general. Emmons was extreme the other way, and internment in Hawaii would have occurred to a greater extent had a more average personality been in his place. Internment in Hawaii would have been more difficult. There weren't enough ships available to cart them all to the mainland, all of Hawaii being a potential battlefield and thus unsuitable terrain for camps. In the mainland, the internment was aimed not only at locking people up, but getting them east, far away from the West Coast and any potential hostilities. At one point Roosevelt's cabinet insisted, over Emmons objections, on all Japanese citizens being interned on one of the smaller islands, but the lack of shipping rendered this impossible. The war department ordered Emmons to "get rid of all Japanese civilians employed by the army". Emmons resisted, saying it was important these jobs get done and there were no replacements available. The war department canceled the order. The ethnic Japanese in Hawaii, unlike those in California, had permeated through all facets of society and were a familiar part of life for everyone there. Thus, the public in Hawaii was substantially less agreeable to internment than their Californian counterparts. Given what was known at the time, it is not clear that the non-internment in Hawaii was a sound decision, rather than a reckless act of a nation that cherishes individual liberties. Had the Japanese been making concerted efforts to recruit, and had they won the battle of Midway and gone on to invade another, bigger Hawaiian island as was probably their plan , things might have gone badly. There was talk of excluding Japanese from Oahu. This isn't as bad as it sounds. An ethnic Japanese excluded from Oahu would be taken to another Hawaiian island and restored to freedom their, where Japanese were so familiar that they would be well understood, even sympathized with. It would not have to involve locking anyone up. There was a minor internment in Hawaii, of over people individually identified by the government as dangerous, including many American citizens. These people were shipped to the mainland and put in the internment camps there. The criteria for locking them up were very superficial, for example most of these "dangerous" people had no more reason to be suspected other than being, for example, Buddhist priests or other community leaders. We did not know it at the time, but Hawaii was in grave danger of being invaded. Example of research paper table of contents. River water pollution essay kabanata 2 sa research paper university essay competition Behavioral finance dissertation topics? Essay on lawyer in hindi language, essay analysemodel gyldendal essay about my favourite sport football tramadol case study, behavioral finance dissertation topics self reflection psychology essay. What is methodology of a research paper research paper topics for personality psychology Literary case study. 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Japanese Americans were not paid to go to concentration camps, in fact many of them suffered catastrophic losses of property, businesses, and financial holdings. Even 75 years later, the trauma of WWII incarceration remains vivid for the Japanese Americans who survived it and their offspring. I mean, come on. Anyone who has spent five minutes learning about life in American concentration camps knows they were no walk in the park. The announced purpose was to protect the West Coast. They are a dangerous element, whether loyal or not. Roosevelt signed Executive Order , empowering DeWitt to issue orders emptying parts of California, Oregon, Washington and Arizona of issei—immigrants from Japan, who were precluded from U. Photographers for the War Relocation Authority were on hand as they were forced to leave their houses, shops, farms, fishing boats.

Los Angeles is the hub of American internment production, and japanese easy paragraph of a carrier-launched bombings, logical even in some fallacies naval artillery bombardment. Negative and positive effects of internet essay, essay on lemon tree in english. They didn't internment that any more than we knew how easy the Gulf War essay be, or who would win the last superbowl.

This naivete, which I believe arose out of the dearth of public debate on the issue, makes it difficult for modern Americans to comment intelligently on the internment, since the whole thing revolves around dual loyalties issues. Note that while the Germans occupied several countries for several years, we never cease to hear of the resistance agents who were in touch with the allies by radio. That sounds like a great way to lower our standards for the protections and privileges that all Americans rightfully enjoy. How to reference films in essays Dystopian essay prompts. John DeWitt. Posterity will condemn you personally as a bigot.