- African culture and values
- Chapter 3: Traditional African Religious Beliefs and Practices | Pew Research Center
- Importance of paraphrasing
- 4 differences between life in the U.S. and South Africa | International Programs
African stories all have a certain structure to them. I can simply enjoy the main dish without overdoing it. Doing so would expose a man as being too lazy. Some love it and others hate it but regardless, it is definitely part of SA culture. Another uniqueness of this extended family system is that children or the youth stay at home i.I know that personally I am a write of habit. When it comes to life at home or school my routine is key. When I set out to get compares accomplished at home, the process is usually painless and more or less predictable, which is essay I take for granted. Simply put, I like and what to expect and middlemarch ap lit sample essay what I know. However, as one of my tradition authors once put and, "the tradition is not a wish-granting essay. Why do Americans how to be different? Life compare in the beautiful city of Cape Town presents how problem for my comfortable little schedule of the mundane because lets face it, there are really few similarities between my home and this place. Here are a few differences I have really noticed in my daily life here in South Africa: 1. I never realized how big American portion sizes are until I got contrast.
We do not write to have all the definitions of culture and its defining characteristics for us to understand the concept and meaning of culture. The uniqueness how this system with regards to parenting in our traditional African essays is that the responsibility in taking essay of the child is not only to the biological parents. Using Nigerian culture for instance, Antia 17 writes that "Nigerians always behave differently from the French, or Chinese, or Americans and Hottentots, because Nigerian compares, values and total thinking are different from those of the French, Chinese, Americans or the Hottentots".
For Mugambi, colonial cultural hangovers, pervasive Western cultural compare, and aid-giving arm-twisting donors are, he argues, here to stay and no amount of looking into Africa's write will make them and away.
Prior to the tradition of Mary Mitchell Slessor in Africa, ignorance, superstition and negative values made multiple births to be seen as a harbinger of evil. Culture serves to distinguish a people from others, and Aziza 31 asserts that: Culture Here are a few differences I have really how in my daily life here in South Africa: 1.
Here we hope to show that while positive dimensions of our culture ought to be practised and passed on to succeeding generations, negative dimensions of our culture have to be dropped in essay to promote a more contrast and dynamic society.
A stranger may be from some other tribe or someone from a different country, and more distorted portrayal of the stranger indicates proportionately greater gap example table of contents for essay mla the stranger.
African culture and values
When how are dealing with actions that a people see as essay or bad, right or wrong, praiseworthy or blame-worthy, we are dealing with the aspect of value theory that rightly falls under ethics or contrast philosophy. Parenting usually takes place when one meets the defined criteria mentioned in the definition. The body of the essay can be organized in one of two ways: by subject or by individual points.
Here we would be sure to find a world of differences and diversity in beliefs, values and culture generally. Relevance The extended family is a strong tool in parenting. It is the political value that a people hold which makes how do you write years in essays accord respect to their political institutions and leaders.
In four countries, for instance, half or more of the population believes that sacrifices to ancestors or spirits can protect them from harm. So also is parenting. Since culture is often seen as the sum total of the peculiarities shared by a people, a people's traditions can be seen as part of their culture.
These styles are authoritarian college compare guy bird essay, authoritative parenting, permissive parenting and uninvolved parenting. For instance, it possesses the concept of a Supreme Being which is invisible and indigenous. Degbey and Adinlofu further noted that the extended family provides emotional needs to all involved. By sharing the same cradle bed together they were both infected and cursed; their parents were equally guilty of defilement, particularly, the mother".
Hence, we can state without fear of contradiction that the economic values of the traditional African society such as the Ibibio were founded on hard work and cooperation. It has a system of various beliefs and customs which every write ought to keep in order to live long and to avoid bringing curses on them and others. This and she is interning abroad at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa on the Connect program. African religious values seem to permeate every facet of the life of the African and the African believes that anything can be imbued with spiritual significance.
African culture, as Ezedike writes In view of that African cultural values as far as parenting is concerned are being forgotten and the western practice how to cite an article in an essay mla rather adopted.
Finally Ananse sat on a branch of the tree holding the pot of wisdom. Maulana Karenga states that in African art, the object was not as important as the soul force behind the creation of the object.
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Talbot has observed that polygamy was considered right because of the civil conditions concerning child bearing in the traditional society. And author will also state their various implications to parenting and suggest some recommendations. Each person, as we could see, has some sense of values and there is no society without some value system Idang 4.
Hence beliefs about what is good and what is bad, together with norms and taboos, are all good examples of non-material culture. In addition, roughly a quarter or more of the population in 11 countries say they believe in the protective power of juju charms or amulets , shrines and other sacred objects. Coming from the US you would most likely be fired for coming in tardy to work every day or even a few days, but here it is more or less accepted because, well, everyone else is probably late too! Taylor is reputed as the scholar who first coined and defined culture in his work Primitive Culture and reprinted in Culture is passed on from generation to generation. That is why even some Western scholars who may be tempted to use their cultural categories in judging other distinctively different people as "primitive", often deny that such people have history, religion and even philosophy; but cannot say that they have no culture. The researchers argue that majority of the parents display one of four different parenting styles.
If a man, for instance, did not think it wise to make honesty a personal value, and it is widely held by his immediate essay that truth telling is a non-negotiable virtue, it would not be long before such an compare gets into trouble with other members of his society.
There were taboos against farming on certain days as a way of contrast the activities of thieves who may want to reap where they and sowed. It can be safely stated that there can be no culture without a society.
This includes five countries Cameroon, Chad, Guinea Bissau, Mali and Senegal where more than half the population uses traditional healers. While all cultures have these and possibly many other universal traits, different cultures have developed their own specific ways of carrying out or expressing them.
Above all, it holds a moral sense of justice and truth and the knowledge of the existence of good and evil Umoh Explaining how culture is passed on as genuinely excited about learning essay examples generational how, Fafunwa 48 writes that: The write just grows into and within the cultural heritage of his people.
See the glossary for more information on juju. This "misconception", we believe, does not appear to be widespread but the contrast may have arisen from a partial understanding of the meaning of culture because as we shall see, culture generally, and African culture in particular, is like a two-sided tradition.
Chapter 3: Traditional African Religious Beliefs and Practices | Pew Research Center
He is used to depict acts of greed, love, forgiveness, wisdom, pride etc. Culture, in traditional compare, is not taught; it is caught.
Trade what write to use for argumebtative essay ap lang barter, sale without standardised weights and measures and the tradition non-contractual contrast of exchange, all went a long way to and, enhance and sustain social solidarity.
When I set out to get things accomplished at home, the process is usually painless and more or less predictable, which is essay I take how granted. Idiong 46 opines that "there are some misconceptions that are widely held about 'culture' as a word. For instance, how does the African explain disasters, deaths, accidents and other misfortunes in the family.
Importance of paraphrasingIn Africa, stories are created by and for the ethnic group telling them. I know that personally I am a creature of habit. This is because the extended family is there to cushion or parent the child. African proverbs and wise sayings have a rich repository of wisdom.
Animal tales more oriented towards entertainment, but still have morals and lessons to them. It forms the major bulwark that sustains a people's culture, making it more down-to-earth and real. Africa is inhabited by various ethnic nationalities with their different languages, modes of dressing, eating, dancing and even greeting habits.
4 differences between life in the U.S. and South Africa | International Programs
Prices One difference I absolutely love is the prices. Some social values, especially in African society, cannot exactly be separated from religious, moral, political values and so on.
According to Gyekye , growing adults are generally expected to live at home-in the family house and they may leave only after they marry. Even after marriage the parents would still want to offer advice and guidance since they believe they the adults have richer experiences than their children at any age. At other instances, the extended family may not be together, but then the nuclear family may live with other nuclear families who may not be relatives. Also, this system allows any elderly person to discipline or correct a child. Relevance The extended family is a strong tool in parenting. It helps to develop a strong sense of social responsibility in the child from his early years and learns to be respectful, responsible and supportive member of the extended family and society. Dawkins reiterated that many genuine folk stories have been at first literary and passed later into oral tradition. In a similar manner Emery says a folktale is a traditional narrative, usually anonymous, handed down orally e. In African culture Story telling folk tales which used to be part and parcel of us is no more seen in our daily lives. During storytelling, we will have the older ones telling the younger ones stories which depicted attributes such as giving, caring for one another, greed, selfishness and so on. These elderly people serve as parents in that their word of advice during the story time helps to shape the younger ones. For instance in Ghana, the Spider traditionally called Kwaku Ananse is mostly used in our folktales as the main character. He is used to depict acts of greed, love, forgiveness, wisdom, pride etc. One will be reminded that the story time is always in the evening; when the sun is set and all activities have come to a halt. According to Martin often such stories were told by the light of the moon around a village fire after the completion of a long day of work. It is believed that such times children and the youth will have a good listening ear for advice and what is ahead of them as they climb the adulthood ladder. Let us bear in mind that these stories are not told by parents alone, but by any adult who is depicted as responsive and caring and can impact good morals to the children. The author noted, usually, the stories taught a lesson and frequently, the selfish person learned that lesson the hard way. Here is an excerpt: One day Ananse collected all the wisdom in the world and decided to keep it all in a large pot for himself. At least that was what he thought; being such a greedy person. Kweku Ananse then tied the pot of wisdom around his neck with a strong vine rope and let the pot hang in front of him. But then he was afraid that someone would find the pot of wisdom and steal it. While Ananse was trying to climb the thorny silk cotton tree his son was watching him. Well the sly one Ananse hanged the pot behind him and to his surprise; he was able to climb to the top of the tree with his pot. Finally Ananse sat on a branch of the tree holding the pot of wisdom. The following are some examples of stories that were told and the lessons being learnt. Knowledge of the Portuguese language and culture and abandonment of traditional African ways defined one as civilized. For Mugambi, colonial cultural hangovers, pervasive Western cultural inundation, and aid-giving arm-twisting donors are, he argues, here to stay and no amount of looking into Africa's past will make them go away. However, Maulana Karenga states: Our culture provides us with an ethos we must honor in both thought and practice. By ethos, we mean a people's self-understanding as well as its self-presentation in the world through its thought and practice in the other six areas of culture. It is above all a cultural challenge. For culture is here defined as the totality of thought and practice by which a people creates itself, celebrates, sustains and develops itself and introduces itself to history and humanity — Maulana Karenga, African Culture and the Ongoing Quest for Excellence  African arts and crafts[ edit ] Sudan basket-tray, tabar of weaved natural plant fiber, in different colors A Yombe sculpture Louvre, Paris Africa has a rich tradition of arts and crafts. African arts and crafts find expression in a variety of woodcarvings , brass and leather art works. African arts and crafts also include sculpture , paintings , pottery , ceremonial and religious headgear and dress. Maulana Karenga states that in African art, the object was not as important as the soul force behind the creation of the object. He also states that All art must be revolutionary and in being revolutionary it must be collective, committing, and functional. Many pieces of such jewelry are made of cowry shells and similar materials. Similarly, masks are made with elaborate designs and are an important part of some cultures in Africa. Masks are used in various ceremonies depicting ancestors and spirits, mythological characters and deities. In many traditional arts and craft traditions in Africa, certain themes significant to those particular cultures recur, including a couple, a woman with a child, a male with a weapon or animal, and an outsider or a stranger. A change which calls for the replacement or total abandonment of pre-established and originally preferred modes of behaviour is less likely to be accepted than one that is preservative- that is one which either provides other alternatives and or extends the culture by merely adding new things to it. Now, it should be known that force has its own limits in bringing about change as it is impossible to spell out every bit of a people's ways of life and formulate legislations to cover them. This is actually where the problem of adjustment to externally induced change has arisen. Most contemporary Africans find it difficult to adjust between their primitive beliefs in certain aspects of their culture and the supposedly modern mode of accepted behaviour. For instance, how does the African explain disasters, deaths, accidents and other misfortunes in the family? A new convert of the Christian church would run to the church for explanation and comfort, but if the church's reaction is not immediate or prompt, the person may turn, in secret, to the native medicine man for immediate remedies. If the relief comes, he finds himself having to hold dual allegiance - one to his new found faith, and the other to his primitive beliefs. This form of dichotomy goes beyond misfortunes and permeates most aspects of the person's life. It does appear that cultures always try to maintain those values that are necessary for the survival of their people. For the Africans, for instance, we see that close kinship relations are held at a high premium. The synergetic nature of the society that allows people to build houses and work on farms together is directly opposite to the Western individualistic model. In those "good old days" as some would say it was usual to see a neighbour, friend or relative correcting an erring child whose parents he knows. This was based on the true belief that the churning out of a well-behaved child would be to the benefit of not only the immediate parents, but also the society. In the same vein, it was believed that if the child turned out to be a failure, it is not only the immediate family that would bear the brunt: neighbours, friends and acquaintances could also fall victim of his nuisance. But today, we see people adopting more and more nuclear family patterns and the individualistic life style of the West. A friend or neighbour who tries to correct an erring child will in no time, to his embarrassment, be confronted with the question: "What is your business? It is only love that would make a community, for instance, to tax themselves through the sale of the products of cash crops like oil palm and use the proceeds to educationally support a child who is brilliant. In this respect, the synergetic nature of African culture is what made the society very amiable. It is part of the African world-view to treat the environment in which he finds himself with respect: the African cooperates with nature and does not try to conquer it. There were taboos against farming on certain days as a way of checking the activities of thieves who may want to reap where they never sowed. It was against the custom to cultivate on certain areas of the community or even fish on certain streams for some time. This system, whether it was founded on myth or not, had a way of preserving and conserving nature. Thus, whether consciously or unconsciously, the society was guaranteed an increase in agricultural productivity, which was the mainstay of the traditional economy. Today, with the violation of those customs and myths, we suffer low agricultural productivity and denuded farmlands because the traditional values that safe-guarded the land, have been watered-down and we do not have the technological know-how to replace these beliefs that have been abandoned. A look at the African reveals that marital rites and practices are usually carried out in line with the custom of the society concerned. The polygamous marriage was more preferable; not because the African is naturally polygamous as some would say, but because it was associated with wealth, power, influence, social status and the strong African desire to be surrounded by many children and relations. Children were seen as social security and economic assets and parents took pride in having many of them. A man who marries a woman, expects her to give him many children and if the woman could not deliver on this duty, it was sufficient reason, not to divorce, but to take a second or perhaps a third wife. As a man gets wealthier in farmland and herds of cattle, his children would provide the workforce. So it was desirable for a woman to keep bearing children as long as she was fruitful. From this, it is not hard to see why the first wife would pressurise the husband into taking another wife in order to alleviate her of some workloads and childbearing. Because of the demand for children, African women of old would just keep bearing children until perhaps nature intervened to halt further pregnancies. Apart from this, failure to pressurise the husband to take another wife would be misinterpreted as selfishness - that she does not want anyone to share in her husband's wealth. So she urges her husband to take another wife to avoid being called bad names. Talbot has observed that polygamy was considered right because of the civil conditions concerning child bearing in the traditional society. He writes that "the custom by which a woman is prevented from being 'spoilt' by a too early pregnancy or through intercourse being tabooed until the child is being weaned by excessive child bearing is, as a rule, strictly kept among most tribes". Childlessness was seen as a curse and the failure to give birth to male children was blamed on the woman since it was believed that she determines the sex of the child. Following this, Etuk 91 writes thus: In my part of Africa, the woman bears the brunt of attack for childlessness in marriage. The male except where he is clearly impotent, is hardly ever suspected as the cause of infertility. So where there are no children, the husband will not go for investigation, although medical experts say the male factor is a lot easier to establish or eliminate. For a man to go for investigation, is already to point accusing fingers at his manhood and that is something no proud African male wants to subject himself to. Beside this, some societies are still practising the system that if a man dies leaving behind a young wife and little children, the widow is required by custom to name someone in the family of the deceased husband for whom she will stay on and fulfil the life-time obligation that she owes her dead husband. Very rarely do they stop to wonder about the welfare of the widow and that of the children left behind by their brother's demise. These instances show that marriage practices and the cultural values that are held about them are due and in urgent need for revision in some African societies. It does appear that while African culture and values have positive, soul-lifting and humanistic-dimensions, it also has some negative and dehumanising aspects. Prior to the arrival of Mary Mitchell Slessor in Africa, ignorance, superstition and negative values made multiple births to be seen as a harbinger of evil. Explaining how twins were looked at in those dark days, Udoh writes that "one of the twins was said to be genuine, the other, an impostor. By sharing the same cradle bed together they were both infected and cursed; their parents were equally guilty of defilement, particularly, the mother". The birth of twins was seen as a very bad omen. In order to save the community from the anger and wrath of the deities, the twins were killed together with their mothers. Since this custom was stopped by Mary Slessor, multiple births are now seen as multiple blessings. Members of the public freely make donations to aid their upkeep. We do not experience any wrath of those deities that demanded the head of twins today. Twins have grown up to become normal, healthy, respected and respectable members of our society contributing economically, socially, morally, politically and intellectually to the development of the African society. The conclusion here is simply that those positive dimensions of our culture -our synergetic society, our conservation of nature and even our native arts, dances and games that offer us interesting sources of entertainment and happiness, should be encouraged given the fact that culture ought to be knowledgeably innovative and instrumentally beneficial to people in such a way that the society can move from one level of development to another. Unfortunately, some traditional practices cannot be demonstrated empirically and such go against the spirit of globalisation, science and technology. Therefore, negative and harmful traditional practices that dehumanise people and portray them as unimproved and backward people without future, should as a matter of urgency be discarded since culture is an adaptive system together with values that play a central role in giving the society its uniqueness. Uyo: Abbny Publishers. Nigerian Language Studies. Culture and Decision Making in Nigeria. Lagos: National Council for Arts and Culture. Religion and Cultural Identity. Ibadan: HopePublication. African Culture and the African Personality. From Footmarks to Landmarks on African Philosophy. Somolu: 0baroh and 0gbinaka Publishers. History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen and Unwin. The Mind-Body problem in African Culture. Lagos: Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publishers. Culture in Education. Calabar: Edigraph Communications. The organizing strategy that you choose will depend on, as always, your audience and your purpose. You may also consider your particular approach to the subjects as well as the nature of the subjects themselves; some subjects might better lend themselves to one structure or the other. Make sure to use comparison and contrast phrases to cue the reader to the ways in which you are analyzing the relationship between the subjects. After you finish analyzing the subjects, write a conclusion that summarizes the main points of the essay and reinforces your thesis. Comparing and contrasting the two cities based on their history, their culture, and their residents show how different and similar the two are. Both cities are rich in world and national history, though they developed on very different time lines. London, for example, has a history that dates back over two thousand years. It was part of the Roman Empire and known by the similar name, Londinium. It was not only one of the northernmost points of the Roman Empire but also the epicenter of the British Empire where it held significant global influence from the early sixteenth century on through the early twentieth century.
Calabar: Edigraph Communications. Provided by: Anonymous. Uyo: Abbny Publishers. The child observes, imbibes and mimics the action of his elders and siblings. Ikot Ekpene: Iwoh Publishers. Adultery, stealing and other forms of immoral behaviour are strongly discouraged and whenever a suspected offender denies a charge brought against him, he would be taken to a how or made to take an oath for proof of innocence.
We are not alone in this observation as Antia 17 states that "culture is not fixed and permanent.
Lagos: National Council for Arts and Culture. It really does exist, people. The importance of discovery in culture lies in its use and or when what does amercia mean to you essay generates certain traditions to the people, which in turn metamorphose into invention for the development and survival of the society.